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十多年过去了,被世人寄予厚望的中国古典音乐市场正在陷入成长的烦恼。

许多城市里的观众依然热情高涨,名家的数量依然在增加,音乐学院和音乐厅也依然如雨后春笋般冒出来。纽约爱乐乐团(New York Philharmonic)和费城管弦乐团(Philadelphia Orchestra)都已经在这里找到了长期合作伙伴,茱莉亚学院(Juilliard School)去年宣布了2018年将在紧邻北京的天津开设分校的计划。

但一些难以逾越的障碍让该领域的许多人颇感担忧。观察人士指出,表演艺术机构在管理上相当薄弱,观众也没有得到很好的培育,所以对一些新鲜的曲目根本不感兴趣。

中国爱乐乐团艺术总监兼首席指挥、上海交响乐团音乐总监余隆说,“中国现在面临的问题是:我们如何培养对音乐的热忱,而不仅仅是培养明星。”

没错,中国的一些大城市,比如北京、上海、广州,是古典音乐活动的大本营。1990年代初,北京只有几个专用音乐厅,一年举办的音乐会屈指可数。现在,北京和上海的居民每年可以在数以百计的古典音乐演出之间挑挑拣拣。

但与此同时,武汉、西安等许多二三线城市却很难让高质量的音乐家和观众走进它们那些熠熠生辉的新剧院和新音乐厅。这样的城市大多没有常规的音乐季,也没有引入国外优秀乐团所需的资金。在一些城市里,由于维护不当,曾经颇为辉煌的音乐厅变得一团糟。

“这些二线城市的乐团渴望得到帮助,也正寻求帮助,”常常在中国担任客席指挥的斯坦福大学(Stanford)教授蔡金冬说。“他们需要提高软技能,从乐团最高领导层到下边的乐手,在音乐厅维护和教育等方方面面。”

在很多地方,高质量节目的匮乏导致票房不佳,一些经理人说,由于中国经济增速放缓,这种情况还在继续恶化。此外,中国的慈善文化相对不发达,缺乏鼓励个人资助表演艺术机构的税收激励机制。

“中国缺的是统一的文化政策,”北京国家大剧院演出部副部长任小龙说。

此外还存在中国音乐会观众对非主流音乐的口味问题。

吴氏策划是北京的一家表演艺术机构,同时也是公关策划机构,其总经理吴嘉童回忆了他在1996年把林茨布鲁克纳管弦乐团(Bruckner Orchestra Linz)从奥地利引入中国的往事。那是布鲁克纳作品在中国得到演出的最初几次之一。

“当时大家都说太长了,没有人会愿意买票,”吴嘉童说。“所以我们演奏了布鲁克纳的《G小调序曲》(Overture in G minor),它非常短,然后我们演奏了斯特劳斯的作品,当然了,那是因为当时在中国人心目中,华尔兹舞曲《蓝色多瑙河》(Blue Danube)才是古典音乐。”

一些演出经理表示,现在的观众不仅要听勃拉姆斯(Brahms)和贝多芬(Beethoven),还要听布鲁克纳(Bruckner)、马勒(Mahler,),甚至是普罗科菲耶夫(Prokofiev)。但以欧洲和美国的标准而论,所有这些作曲家的曲目都属于主流,却并不新鲜。

当下,许多音乐厅很难获得公众关注,因为公众的注意力如今逐渐被电影和网络电视夺走了。

“中国的情况和俄罗斯不同,在俄罗斯,就算经济形势非常糟糕,人们仍旧保留着盛装出门观看演出的传统,”上海东方艺术中心总经理林宏鸣说。

因此,知名音乐厅的教育项目,往往旨在培养对表演艺术的整体欣赏水平,而不仅仅针对西方古典音乐。

前述指挥家余隆说,“音乐教育需要再复杂一些。”

现在,更多的音乐厅开始推出学生打折票和年票。

“因为主要的目标观众是中产阶级,我们努力让大部分票的价格能在和电影票的价格对比时还具有竞争力,”林宏鸣说。

很多观察人士称,中国的音乐厅面临的最大挑战或许是找到强有力的经理人。后者既要具备相关音乐知识,又要有耐心,能够让地方政府相信,扶持文化不仅仅是修建音乐厅。

“中国这么大,我们有这么多宏伟的剧场和歌剧院,但如果让我说出五个专业地经营表演场所的总经理的名字,我还真说不出来,”吴嘉童说。

即便一些经理人取得了成功,他们也承认自己经历了一个艰难的学习过程。

任小龙说,在2008年加入头一年投入运营的国家大剧院之前,自己“不懂古典音乐”。

“我们当时学习节目编排,都不知道马勒是谁,”他说。“但过去七年里,我们和乐迷的音乐知识都增加了。”

在像国家大剧院这样的地方,学习的意愿特别重要。国家大剧院至少50%的收入靠门票(相比之下,在美国顶级乐团,这一数字只有大约30%到40%)。

“但一旦给它们找到总经理,中国就会腾飞,”吴嘉童说。

这种乐观态度依然颇为普遍。

中国有数千万年轻人在学习乐器。据信这是推动观众人数增长的首要因素之一。比如,上海东方艺术中心总经理林宏鸣称,古典音乐一半以上的观众在40岁以下。

“过去六年的变化特别大,”已在中国进行了四次巡回演出的悉尼交响乐团(Sydney Symphony Orchestra)总经理罗里·杰夫斯(Rory Jeffes)说。和其他人一样,杰夫斯也表示,不久前人们还会在演出期间大声咳嗽,吐口水,或是一边打电话,一边任由孩子到处跑。因为售票系统的问题而导致成片的座位空着的情况屡见不鲜。

他说,观众现在“真的开始聆听音乐,真的想理解音乐并融入其中”。

英文原文:

China’s Smaller Cities Struggle to Cultivate an Interest in Classical Music
BEIJING — After more than a decade as the world’s great hope for classical music, China is suffering growing pains.
Audiences in many cities remain enthusiastic, virtuosos continue to multiply, and conservatories and concert halls keep mushrooming. The New York Philharmonic and the Philadelphia Orchestra have both forged long-term partnerships here, and the Juilliard School announced plans last year to open a branch in 2018 in Tianjin, just outside Beijing.
But stubborn roadblocks have drawn the concern of many in the field. Observers point to weak management at performing arts institutions and insufficient efforts to educate audiences, who then prove indifferent to adventurous fare.
According to Long Yu, whose posts include artistic director and chief conductor of the China Philharmonic Orchestra and music director of the Shanghai Symphony, “The question for China now is, how do we cultivate passion for music, and not just stars?”
It is true that China’s major cities, namely Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, are hives of classical activity. In the early 1990s, Beijing had only a few dedicated concert halls and concerts a year. Now, residents of the capital and of Shanghai can choose from hundreds of classical music performances annually.
At the same time, many second- and third-tier cities, like Wuhan and Xi’an, are struggling to fill their gleaming new theaters and concert halls with quality musicians and audiences. Most of these cities lack regular concert seasons and the funding to bring in distinguished foreign orchestras. In some, once-grand halls are falling apart because of poor upkeep.
“The orchestras in these second-tier cities are very thirsty and looking for help,” said Cai Jindong, a professor at Stanford and a frequent guest conductor in China. “They need soft-skills development, from the very top leadership down to the musicians, the maintenance of the concert hall, education, everything.”
In many places, a lack of quality programming has led to weak ticket sales, a situation that some managers say has worsened because of the slowing Chinese economy. And the culture of philanthropy in China is relatively undeveloped, with few tax incentives to encourage individuals to support performing arts institutions.
“What China lacks is a unified cultural policy,” said Ren Xiaolong, deputy director of programming at the National Center for the Performing Arts in Beijing.
Then there is the issue of Chinese concertgoers’ appetite for music outside the mainstream.
Wu Jiatong, general manager of Wu Promotion, a Beijing performing arts agency and events organizer, recalled bringing the Bruckner Orchestra Linz from Austria to perform Brucknerfor one of the first times in China, in 1996.
“At the time, people said it’s too long, no one will buy tickets,” said Mr. Wu. “So we played Bruckner’s Overture in G minor, which is very short, and then we played Strauss, of course, because back then the ‘Blue Danube’ waltz was what Chinese thought of as classical music.”
Program managers say there is now a demand to hear not only Brahms and Beethoven but also Bruckner, Mahler, even Prokofiev. But all of those composers are considered part of the standard canon by European and American standards and not adventurous.
Many halls are struggling just to get the attention of a public increasingly drawn into the orbit of films and online television.
“In China, it’s not like in Russia, where even if the economy is really bad, people still have the tradition of getting dressed up and going to performances,” said Lin Hongming, general manager of the Shanghai Oriental Art Center.
As a result, educational programs at leading halls are often designed to cultivate an appreciation for the performing arts in general, not just Western classical music.
Mr. Long, the conductor, said, “Music education needs to be more complex.”
Still, more halls are beginning to offer discounted student tickets and annual memberships.
“Since our main target audience is the middle class, we try to price a bulk of our tickets to be competitive with the cost of a movie ticket,” Mr. Lin said.
Many observers say that perhaps the biggest challenge for concert halls in China is finding strong managers who have both the musical knowledge and the patience to persuade local governments that supporting culture is about more than just building the halls.
“China is so big and we have so many grand theaters and opera houses, but if you asked me to give you the names of five general managers who are running their halls professionally, I wouldn’t be able to,” Mr. Wu said.
Even some managers who are succeeding acknowledge they faced a steep learning curve.
Before joining the National Center for the Performing Arts in 2008, the year after it opened, Mr. Ren said, he had “no idea about classical music.”
“We were learning about programing at that time and wondering, who is Mahler?” he said. “But our knowledge of the music and of the music fans has increased over the last seven years.”
That willingness to learn is especially important at places like the National Center, which depend on ticket sales for at least 50 percent of their revenues (compared with about 30 to 40 percent for many top American orchestras).
“But once you get the general managers in the halls, China will take off,” Mr. Wu said.
Such optimism remains widespread.
Tens of millions of young Chinese are studying instruments, believed to be one of the top drivers of audience growth. At the Shanghai Oriental Art Center, for example, over half the patrons for classical music are under 40, according to Mr. Lin, the general manager.
“The change over six years has been extraordinary,” said Rory Jeffes, managing director of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra, which has toured China four times. Mr. Jeffes, like others, said that not so long ago people would cough loudly and spit during performances, or talk on the phone while their children ran around. It was also not uncommon to see blocks of empty seats because of problems with ticketing systems.
Audiences now, he said, “have really come to grips with the music and want to understand and engage with it in a real way.”